The NIH has released a series of reproducibility guidelines that scientists must address. These guidelines have been introduced because there's a lot of data showing that reproducibility in science is frustratingly lacking in certain experiments.
Non-reproducible experiments waste time, money, and resources. As Begley and Ioannidis cite in their 2015 article :
â€śThe estimates for irreproducibility based on these empirical observations range from 75% to 90%. These estimates fit remarkably well with estimates of 85% for the proportion of biomedical research that is wasted at-large.â€ť
Reproducibility is a mindset, and involves an overall analysis of the scientific process to identify the areas that ...
With the increased focus on reproducibility of scientific data, it is important to look at how data is interpreted. To assist in data interpretation, the scientific method requires that controls are built into the experimental workflow. These controls are essential to minimize the effects of variables in the experiment so that changes caused by the independent variable can be properly elucidated. In fact, one of Begleyâ€™s 6 rules, as described by Bruce Booth, asks if the positive and negative controls were both shown.
What types of controls should be considered when designing a flow cytometry experiment?
Focus controls to minimize confounding variability. ...
To conclude our series on rare event analysis, it is time to discuss the statistics behind rare event analysis. The first 2 parts of this series covered the hardware aspects of measuring rare events and some specific recommendations for gating/analysis of rare events.
It is necessary to sort through hundreds of thousands or millions of cells to find the few events of interest.
With such low event numbers, we move away from the comfortable domain of the Gaussian distribution and move into the realm of Poisson statistics.
There are 3 points to consider to build confidence in the data that the events ...
Having dealt with the hardware issues related to rare event analysis in the first part of this series, it is time to turn to our second focus: how samples are prepared.
Stem cells, circulating tumor cells, and minimal residual disease in cancer patients were all discovered through the power of rare event flow cytometry. When preparing for rare event analysis, sample preparation and data analysis must be taken into account at the beginning.
How will we stain our cells? How will we analyze our cells? What controls will we use to help us identify our rare events? What statistical methods do we ...
â€śNot everything that can be counted counts and not everything that counts can be counted.â€ť â€” William Bruce Cameron (but often misattributed to Albert Einstein)
What does this quote mean in terms of flow cytometry? Flow cytometry can yield multi-parametric data on millions of cells, which makes it an excellent tool for the detection of rare biological events â€” cells with a frequency of less than 1 in 1,000.
With the development and commercialization of tools such as the Symphony, the ZE5, and others which can measure 20 or more fluorescent parameters at the same time, researchers now have the ability to ...
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MedImmune purchased a site license of Expert Cytometryâ€™s Mastery Class. We have over 100 scientists using the program and the feedback has been phenomenal. Iâ€™m amazed at how much the scientists are coming to me with questions that are much more advanced than what I used to get before having access to the Mastery Class. Iâ€™m now able to focus my attention, and that of my staffâ€™s, to more advanced questions and inquiries specific to the researcher. We are also having less trouble with the mistakes that new users make and spending less time dealing with troubleshooting basic issues.Â As the core director at MedImmune, I definitely recommend the Expert Cytometry Mastery Class to all cores, particularly in a corporate setting, where we simply do not have the time to train all of the new users in best practices. My core is running 10 hours a week, ...
Expert CytometryÂ provided an excellent course to our group. The course was over two days. On day one, the instructors provided a great overview of core concepts of flow. On day two, we were able to customize the course to our needs. It was very valuable and I would recommend that if your group is starting to use flow more heavily, that you bring Expert Cytometry in for a course. There are nuances that I never knew and it immediately helped our group perform better experiments. Â Â
Before taking this course, my experience with flow was limited to simple 2 color experiments. Then I was asked to perform a 10-color complete immunophenotype experiment in non-lymphoid tissues. With a ton of help from a long time co-worker and friend, I was successful with the effort. She highly recommended the Excyte Mastery Course to me and I can say she was right. This course truly elevated my knowledge and understanding of flow cytometry. It was very organized, concise and covered everything from understanding your instrument, optimizing it's performance, designing multicolor panels and executing a flow cytometry experiment with all the necessary controls. I look forward to learning more from the advanced seminars and webinars. I highly recommend this course.
I was (and still am for the most part) completely ignorant of the details of flow cytometry.Â The Expert Cytometry teamÂ provided explanations and helped me understand the technology to the point where I was able to intelligently and efficiently manage both of our contract flow labs. Expert Cytometry provided independent assessments of the quality of the work and data from the labs that allowed me to make good decisions regarding the results. Finally, I was always amazed at how quickly Expert CytometryÂ responded and completed the analyses when we were on short timelines. We continue to work with ExCyte and will for the foreseeable future.
Our group at BlueBirdBio was relatively new to flow. We brought ExCyte in for a basic course, and also to help train us on best practices for our new flow cytometer. The level of flow cytometry knowledge ExCyte brought with them was amazing. I canâ€™t believe how much experience ExCyte has and how much they bring to the courses they provide. ExCyte was able to answer all questions with real world examples. The course brought the theory of flow to the real world and helped us understand the concepts more easily. ExCyte was professional, courteous, and it almost felt like they became part of our group while we were working together. I know I can ask ExCyte any questions whenever I need them and I hope to continue to work with them as we move forward. I have no doubt weâ€™ll bring ExCyte back for another course in ...